Revivals were a key part of the movement and attracted hundreds of … State legislatures[which?] Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 1981. New York: Octagon Books, 1976, 139, Barbara Welter, "The Feminization of American Religion: 1800–1860," in. The religious revivals known as the Great Awakening and the Second Great Awakening swept through both the North and South periodically from the 1740s through the 1780s. "The Communion Sermons of James Mcgready: Sacramental Theology and Scots-Irish Piety on the Kentucky Frontier", Meyer, Neil. Revivalism – The Second Great Awakening. There is no doubt that the Second Great Awakening's increase of religious influence in America led to the Civil War. [34], Despite the predominance of women in the movement, they were not formally indoctrinated or given leading ministerial positions. The name refers to belief in the soon Second Advent of Jesus (popularly known as the Second coming) and resulted in several major religious denominations, including Seventh-day Adventists and Advent Christians.[22]. Race, gender, and church hierarchies were leveled on a level playing field and the real purpose of religion came to surface; and that was God. In fact, Harriet Beecher Stowe, daughter of Henry Ward Beecher, would write one of the most influential books. All three of these congregations were under the ministry of James McGready. The Methodists had an efficient organization that depended on itinerant ministers, known as "circuit riders", who sought out people in remote frontier locations. The revival also inspired slaves to demand freedom. At the time, women were tasked with taking care of the children in a household, and thus the passing on of religion from one generation to the next, an immense responsibility in the eyes of preachers, was given to women. It arose in several places and in several active forms. It is not clear why women converted in larger numbers than men. It raised ideas about individual liberty and reason. In northern New England, social activism took precedence; in western New York, the movement encouraged the growth of new denominations. The idea of restoring a "primitive" form of Christianity grew in popularity in the U.S. after the American Revolution. [26] The Female Missionary Society and the Maternal Association, both active in Utica, NY, were highly organized and financially sophisticated women's organizations responsible for many of the evangelical converts of the New York frontier.[27]. [44] More active participation in politics by more segments of the population brought religious and moral issues into the political sphere. [41] The influence of the Awakening continued in the form of more secular movements. Second Great Awakening, Protestant religious revival in the United States from about 1795 to 1835. As a result, local churches saw their roles in society in purifying the world through the individuals to whom they could bring salvation, and through changes in the law and the creation of institutions. Over one hundred years later, temperance would be placed into law, with alcohol banned due to the 18th Amendment in Prohibition. [42] In the midst of shifts in theology and church polity, American Christians began progressive movements to reform society during this period. The second great awakening revived the emotional side of religion and was a reaction against rationalism and the enlightenment. The temperance movement criticized the effects of the role of alcohol in public life. [21], The Advent Movement emerged in the 1830s and 1840s in North America, and was preached by ministers such as William Miller, whose followers became known as Millerites. [2] It rejected the skepticism, deism, Unitarianism, and rationalism left over from the American Enlightenment,[3] about the same time that similar movements flourished in Europe. These organizations were primarily sponsored by affluent women. The circuit riders came from among the common people, which helped them establish rapport with the frontier families they hoped to convert. Baptists and Methodists in the South preached to slaveholders and slaves alike. The Second Great Awakening The second great awakening focused on encouraging Christians to turn away from sinful pasts, acknowledging their unworthiness before God and accepting salvation in Christ. The Second and Third Awakenings were part of a much larger Romantic religious movement that was sweeping across England, Scotland, and Germany.[1]. It greatly increased the number of Christians both in New England and on the frontier. He was a Presbyterian minister, American Temperance Society co-founder and leader. There was no such episode in England, … While Protestant religion had previously played an important role on the American political scene, the Second Great Awakening strengthened the role it would play. The second great awakening was a religious revival in America. The Second Great Awakening also brought significant changes to American culture. When priests and preachers began to organize camp meetings, their official goal was to convert the masses back to religious devotion. It was the first major event that all the colonies could share, helping to break down differences between them. There was no such episode in England, further highlighting variances between Americans and their cousins across the sea. [8][9] Charles Finney, a leading revivalist active in the area, coined the term. [24]:368 Publication and education societies promoted Christian education; most notable among them was the American Bible Society, founded in 1816. The Great Awakening was also a "national" occurrence. In the West, the Second Great Awakening began with James McGready (1762?–1817). "The Frontier Camp Meeting: Contemporary and Historical Appraisals, 1805–1840". Women, who formed a large part of voluntary societies of the time, such as the Female Missionary Society and the Maternal Association, came to join these organizations due to their felt a responsibility to the community. [19], The Methodist circuit riders and local Baptist preachers made enormous gains in increasing church membership. Evangelists often directly addressed issues such as slavery, greed, and poverty, laying the groundwork for later reform movements. The congregations of these denomination were committed to individuals' achieving a personal relationship with Christ. Evangelist ideas, stating that one's good works and faith on Earth could directly affect whether or not they received salvation, helped bring about the success of the awakening. These often provided the first encounter for some settlers with organized religion, and they were important as social venues. During the period of revival, mothers were seen as the moral and spiritual foundation of the family, and were thus tasked with instructing children in matters of religion and ethics. The causes of the Second Great Awakening included the social disruptions of the Market Revolution, the democratization of American culture, and a … A 1932 source estimated at least three female converts to every two male converts between 1798 and 1826. This movement rose in the 1820's and declined in the 1870's. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revivals and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. It was a time of evangelical passion and revival in American. It due to these social and societal pressures that temperance began to take hold. Long, Kimberly Bracken. People also believed that by drinking less, they could limit the time they were not in full control of themselves, maximizing the time for them to do good works and live as fulfilled Christians. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival during the early 19th century in the United States. Leaders such as Charles Finney saw women's public prayer as a crucial aspect in preparing a community for revival and improving their efficacy in conversion. Thus, evangelical converts were leading figures in a variety of 19th century reform movements. The camp-meetings featured zealous preachers who applied Christian teaching to the resolution of the social problems of the day. What was the Second Great Awakening?The Second Great Awakening was prompted by falling interest in religion when people were excited about the innovations of the Industrial Revolution and the rapid expansion of U.S. territories, particularly in the west. He was known as the "Great Itinerant" because he traveled and preached all around North … The Second Great Awakening had a multitude of both controversial, yet progressive, changes in both religion and everyday life for a wide variety of American lifestyles, in the frontier and New England. [15], The Revival of 1800 in Logan County, Kentucky, began as a traditional Presbyterian sacramental occasion. It created divisions within the church leading to more … The religions following the second Great Awakening focused on … As the Second Great Awakening progressed, Church leaders searched for more ways to help people devote themselves more fully to Protestantism. Young people (those under 25) also converted in greater numbers, and were the first to convert. [43], The religious enthusiasm of the Second Great Awakening was echoed by the new political enthusiasm of the Second Party System. The Great Awakening notably altered the religious climate in the American colonies. Motivated by a concept of religious benevolence that encouraged them to try and improve the condition of spiritually impoverished people, these religious reformers created a national network of religious institutions in the decade after 1815. Second Great Awakening A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. In the 1830s, female moral reform societies rapidly spread across the North making it the first predominantly female social movement. The Presbyterians and Methodists sponsored similar gatherings on a regular basis after the Revolution. This Second Great Awakening, a reprise of the Great Awakening of the early 18th century, was marked by an emphasis on personal piety over schooling and theology. The six-day gathering attracting perhaps as many as 20,000 people, although the exact number of attendees was not formally recorded. Birdsall, Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening and the New England Social Order". At the heart of this aspect of the Second Great Awakening was a religious commitment to social reform by elite and middle-class urban dwellers. The second great awakening contradicted the assertion of the first great awakening during which the doctrine of predestination was introduced and … Eventually, as these societies grew, certain leaders rose to the top, and created more opportunities and gave more leadership roles to women. The sheer exhilaration of participating in a religious revival with crowds of hundreds and perhaps thousands of people inspired the dancing, shouting, and singing associated with these events. Second Great Awakening The Great Awakening came to an end sometime during the 1740s. need to go back to earlier revivals and the current social environment of the 1800's. The Methodist Church used circuit ridersto reach people in frontier locations. The numerical strength of the Baptists and Methodists rose relative to that of the denominations dominant in the colonial period—the Anglicans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Reformed. [11], On the American frontier, evangelical denominations, especially Methodists and Baptists, sent missionary preachers and exhorters to meet the people in the backcountry in an effort to support the growth of church membership and the formation of new congregations. While the movement unified the colonies and boosted church growth, experts say it also caused division among those who supported it and those who rejected it. The Second Great Awakening was important for people's religious lives, but it was also important because it gave rise to a number of reform movements (such as abolitionism) that were … As the Second Great Awakening progressed, Church leaders searched for more ways to help people devote themselves more fully to Protestantism. American Revolution It detached churches from Govt. Historians named the Second Great Awakening in the context of the First Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1750s and of the Third Great Awakening of the late 1850s to early 1900s. The awakening brought comfort in the face of uncertainty as a result of the socio-political changes in America. T… Husbands, especially in the South, sometimes disapproved of their wives' conversion, forcing women to choose between submission to God or their spouses. Among the new denominations that grew from the religious ferment of the Second Great Awakening are the Churches of Christ, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), the Seventh-day Adventist Church, and the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada. McGready was a stirring preacher and under his ministry an extensive awakening … Daniel Walker Howe, "The Evangelical Movement and Political Culture in the North During the Second Party System", The Journal of American History 77, no. Nearing the end of the Second Great Awakening, hundreds of thousands of people had been converted, and spurred to reengage with Christianity, particularly Evangelist Ideas. While it occurred in all parts of the United States, it was especially strong in the Northeast and the Midwest. [23]:89 Several factors made the restoration sentiment particularly appealing during this time period:[23]:90–94, The Restoration Movement began during, and was greatly influenced by, the Second Great Awakening. McGready was a stirring preacher and under his ministry an extensive awakening spread over north—central North Carolina after 1791. One of the most important issues at the time, abolitionism was a topic of great debate and increasing violence throughout the States. [41], Protestant religious revival in the early 19th-century United States, George M. Fredrickson, "The Coming of the Lord: The Northern Protestant Clergy and the Civil War Crisis," in. While not a direct rebuke of the Enlightenment movement, the 2 nd Great Awakening … One idea was temperance, which is the abstinence from any alcohol. [40], Revivals and perfectionist hopes of improving individuals and society continued to increase from 1840 to 1865 across all major denominations, especially in urban areas. To a lesser extent the Presbyterians also gained members, particularly with the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in sparsely settled areas. [25], Congregationalists set up missionary societies to evangelize the western territory of the northern tier. The Second Great Awakening By the end of the 18th century, many educated Americans no longer professed traditional Christian beliefs. Especially in the Baptist Church, African Americans were welcomed as members and as preachers. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival during the early 19th century in the United States. A revival known as the Second Great Awakening began in New England in the 1790s. Newer denominations, such as Methodists and Baptists, grew quickly. Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, Elizabeth J.Clapp, and Julie Roy Jeffrey, ed., Women, Dissent and Anti-slavery in Britain and America, 1790–1865, (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2011): 13–14, Barbara Welter, "The Feminization of American Religion: 1800–1860," in Clio's Consciousness Raised, edited by Mary S. Hartman and Lois Banner. [19][20], The converts during the Second Great Awakening were predominantly female. The outpouring of religious fervor and revival began in Kentucky and Tennessee in the 1790s and early 1800s among the Presbyterians, Methodists and Baptists. Women also created social circles where they could share religious ideas and talk about Protestantism. The reason for this was quite simple - If people drank less, they would commit less crimes and misdemeanors while under the influence. Most of the Scots-Irish immigrants before the American Revolutionary War settled in the backcountry of Pennsylvania and down the spine of the Appalachian Mountains in present-day Maryland and Virginia, where Presbyterian emigrants and Baptists held large outdoor gatherings in the years prior to the war. The Great Awakening was also a "national" occurrence. "The Second Great Awakening in the Urban Centers: An Examination of Methodism and the 'New Measures, Cott, Nancy F. "Young Women in the Second Great Awakening in New England,". The reason for this was quite simple - If people drank less, they would commit less crimes and misdemeanors while under the influence. Like the First Great Awakening a half century earlier, the Second Great Awakening in North America reflected Romanticism characterized by enthusiasm, emotion, and an appeal to the supernatural. The Second Great Awakening laid the foundations of the development of present-day religious beliefs and establishments, moral views, and democratic ideals in the United States. Church membership doubled in the years between 1800 and 1835. [29] His sermon at Thomas Chapel in Chapeltown, Delaware, in 1784 was the first to be delivered by a black preacher directly to a white congregation.[30]. Women's prayer groups were an early and socially acceptable form of women's organization. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. As a result, the numerical strength of the Baptists and Methodists rose relative to that of the denominations dominant in the colonial period—the Anglicans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists. Women were sick of drunk men coming home raged, priests wished for more religious individuals to come to Church, who were more devoted to God than before, and finally, supposedly God too looked down on those who drank alcohol. This religious movement was felt nationwide and consisted of small and large gatherings alike. The Second Great Awakening rendered the nation more united in terms of a broadly accepted Protestantism even as it led to the multiplication of different sects and denominations. Unlike before and in predestination, people now believed their free will would lead them to Heaven, and began to lead much more religious lives in an attempt to be saved. 4 (March 1991), p. 1218 and 1237. International Conference of Reformed Churches, North American Presbyterian and Reformed Council, 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution, Timeline of abolition of slavery and serfdom, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Ethnocultural politics in the United States, "Backcountry Religious Ways: The North British Field-Meeting Style", "Religious Transformation and the Second Great Awakening", Introducing Black Harry Hoosier: The History Behind Indiana's Namesake, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in the U.S. and Canada, Christian churches and churches of Christ, Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Second_Great_Awakening&oldid=992554885, History of Christianity in the United States, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The Second Great Awakening led to a period of antebellum social reform an… It helped propel numerous reform movements, most notably involving temperance and abolition, even as it attempted to return Christianity to its primitive roots. In the Appalachian region of Tennessee and Kentucky, the revival energized Presbyterians, Methodists and Baptists, and gave rise to the popular ca… The abolitionist movement and the temperance movement were influenced by … This ‘Second Great Awakening’ consisted of several kinds of activity, distinguished by locale and expression of religious commitment.” (Outline of American History). Women made up a large part of these voluntary societies. The movement started around 1800, had begun to gain momentum by 1820, and was in decline by 1870. One idea was temperance, which is the abstinence from any alcohol. Though its roots are in the First Great Awakening and earlier, a re-emphasis on Wesleyan teachings on sanctification emerged during the Second Great Awakening, leading to a distinction between Mainline Methodism and Holiness churches. Various scholarly theories attribute the discrepancy to a reaction to the perceived sinfulness of youthful frivolity, an inherent greater sense of religiosity in women, a communal reaction to economic insecurity, or an assertion of the self in the face of patriarchal rule. Settlers in thinly populated areas gathered at the camp meeting for fellowship as well as worship. This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 21:59. Perhaps equally important was his influence upon young men such as Barton W. Stone and William McGee. The Civil War, happening only 20 years after the end of the Second Great Awakening… Ordinary people were encouraged to make a personal connection with God, instead of relying on a minister. The Methodist Church used circuit riders to reach people in frontier locations. Social reform, especially in northern states, was an important part of the Second Great Awakening. "[7] During the Second Great Awakening of the 1830s, some diviners expected the millennium to arrive in a few years. The Second Great Awakening was marked by a sudden earnestness in Christian devotion and Christlike imitation of life. It was the first major event that all the colonies could share, helping to break down differences between them. Johnson, Charles A. Women, who formed a large part of voluntary societies of the time, such as the Female Missionary Society and the Maternal Association, came to join these organizations due to their felt a responsibility to the community. Interest in transforming the world was applied to mainstream political action, as temperance activists, antislavery advocates, and proponents of other variations of reform sought to implement their beliefs into national politics. While the Second Great Awakening does not refer to an exact time period, one its starting points has been identified as the revival held at Cane Ridge, Kentucky in 1801. This revival expressed Arminian theology. Early Baptist congregations were formed by slaves and free African Americans in South Carolina and Virginia. The Second Great Awakening was a U.S. religious revival that began in the late eighteenth century and lasted until the middle of the nineteenth century. The Second Great Awakening would also promote a drastic increase in women's rights from years prior. Revivals were a key part of the movement and attracted hundreds of converts to new Protestant denominations. The Great Camp Meetings. There were camp meetings. In the West, the Second Great Awakening began with James McGready (1762?–1817). Each denomination had assets that allowed it to thrive on the frontier. 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